The visitors, aiming to stretch their unbeaten run to four matches, dominated the first half, and when Cambridge threatened to get back into it after the break they virtually wrapped things up with a second goal in the 69th minute.
It was ex-Bristol City player Brian Tinnion who gave the Shots the early boost they were looking for with one of his trademark free-kicks.
Cambridge's Ritchie Hanlon unnecessarily gave away a free-kick 25 yards out and Tinnion brilliantly lifted his shot over the defensive wall and into the top right-hand corner.
A furious fightback might have been expected from a Cambridge side containing three of the four players dropped by manager Rob Newman for disciplinary reasons at Morecambe last week, but it was Aldershot who continued to make the running.
They forced a series of corners and would have been 2-0 ahead after a quarter of an hour if home keeper Scott Howie had not produced a breathtaking reflex save to tip Matt Somner's shot over the crossbar.
It might have been different for Cambridge if their star striker Fola Onibuje had followed up a quicksilver burst midway through the half with a better shot than the one which scraped the wrong side of the near post.
Aldershot eased off the gas to some extent in the second half and were probably a little fortunate that goalkeeper Nikki Bull made a superb save from Craig Westcarr on the hour.
But that spurred them into life and nine minutes later Tim Sills easily outjumped defender Dan Gleeson as they went for a right-wing cross and powered a header under the crossbar.
David Bridges forced a save from goalkeeper Bull in the dying minutes but as well as deserving the result Aldershot were good value for a rare clean sheet after going into the game as the side who had conceded most goals (18) away from home in the Conference this season.